Political Declaration on surveillance of HIV / AIDS transmission from the UNAIDS 2012 – 2015 envisages goals and commitments to eliminate and permanently reducing the number of new cases of infection and deaths associated with this disease, or the motto: Getting to zero – “Faster, Smarter, Better “, which should be achieved through:
- Reducing the transmission of HIV in the population.
- Elimination of stigma and discrimination against people with HIV.
- Reduction of deaths related to HIV.
- Preventing the spread of HIV among people who inject drugs intravenously.
- Preventing death from TB as a co-infection with HIV.
- Reduce the gap between rich and poor countries about their financial investment for HIV transmission.
- Elimination of gender disparity associated with the transmission and treatment of HIV.
- Elimination of transport restrictions for HIV-infected.
- Strengthening the integration of people living with HIV in the countries.
The motto of the campaign for 2015, on the occasion of December 1, will be “Let’s get to zero” Get informed, get tested, do not discriminate “.
HIV continues to be a major global public health issue, having claimed more than 34 million lives so far.
- In 2014, 1.2 [980 000–1.6 million] million people died from HIV-related causes globally.
- There were approximately 36.9 [34.3–41.4] million people living with HIV at the end of 2014 with 2.0 [1.9–2.2] million people becoming newly infected with HIV in 2014 globally.
- Sub-Saharan Africa is the most affected region, with 25.8 [24.0–28.7] million people living with HIV in 2014. Also sub-Saharan Africa accounts for almost 70% of the global total of new HIV infections.
- HIV infection is often diagnosed through rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), which detect the presence or absence of HIV antibodies. Most often these tests provide same day test results; essential for same day diagnosis and early treatment and care.
- There is no cure for HIV infection. However, effective antiretroviral (ARV) drugs can control the virus and help prevent transmission so that people with HIV, and those at substantial risk, can enjoy healthy and productive lives.
- It is estimated that currently only 53% of people with HIV know their status.
- In 2014, approximately 150 million children and adults in 129 low- and middle-income countries received HIV testing services.
- Between 2000 and 2015, new HIV infections have fallen by 35%, AIDS-related deaths have fallen by 24% with some 7.8 million lives saved as a result of international efforts that led the global achievement of the HIV targets of the Millennium Development Goals.
- Expanding ART to all people living with HIV and expanding prevention choices can help avert 21 million AIDS-related deaths and 28 million new infections by 2030.
- By mid-2015, 15.8 million people living with HIV were receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) globally.
- Despite all the efforts to fight HIV, this year the European Region has reached over 142 000 new HIV infections, the highest number ever
- “HIV diagnoses among men who have sex with men have been rising at an alarming rate, from 30% in 2005 to 42% in 2014, with increases in all but six EU and EEA countries”, highlights ECDC Acting Director Andrea Ammon. “
BASIC INFORMATION ON HIV / AIDS
1. AIDS / HIV
AIDS (Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) is a condition characterized by a gradual decrease in resistance to infection. It is caused by HIV (HIV-Human immunodeficiency Virus), therefore AIDS is the terminal stage of HIV infection.
2. LIFE CYCLE OF HIV
Primary HIV infection: Immediately after contact with HIV
Clinical latency: After primary HIV infection, it may take many years without any symptoms.
AIDS: As a result of constant breeding of the virus over a long period of time, occurs a gradual reduction of the defensive ability of the organism. So in this final stage of HIV infection it can occur different diseases (opportunistic infections) and malignant diseases, which are a major cause of illness and death from HIV infection.
- SOURCE OF INFECTION
Secretions and excretions through which HIV infection can be transmit in humans: blood, semen, vaginal and cervical secretions, breast milk, secretions from the wound, the cerebrospinal fluid, pleural fluid, synovial, peritoneal, pericardial, and amniotic fluid.
4. METHOD OF TRANSMISSION
- Applying drugs intravenously
- Tattooing, acupuncture;
- Transplantation of organs and tissues;
- Professional transmission – among health workers who do not respect the general protection measures;
- During risky sex, the risk is 10-15%
- Vertical transmission – during pregnancy, childbirth or breastfeeding.
- OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS
The microorganisms that usually do not cause disease may become pathogenic in an impaired immune system – they use the possibility of a weak immune system to cause disease. The most common opportunistic infections, thrush, cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), Pneumocistis Carini pneumonia (PCP), Tokoplasmoza, Tuberculosis (TB)
6. DEALING WITH HIV INFECTION
The treatment of HIV is a complex, multidisciplinary process involving several groups of drugs/medicaments: drugs that act directly on the virus (antiretroviral drugs), drugs that act on the causes of opportunistic infections, and medications to maintain and improve immunity.
7. HIV – TESTING
HIV test is a specific test that establishes or rejects the existence of HIV in the body usually taking a sample of blood or saliva. A Period when to do the test is at least 3 months after the last risky behavior.For diagnostic are used Rapid test, ELISA and WESTERN BLOOD confirmatory test. In Macedonia there are 14 VCT counseling where you can get counseling before and after performing a diagnostic test by experts to assess the risk of HIV infection.